What Is Keto? Introduction To Ketogenic Diet, The Science Explained

What Is Keto? Introduction To Ketogenic Diet, The Science Explained

July 20, 2019 100 By William Morgan


– Hey, what’s up guys,
Christopher Walker here
and this video is gonna be the first video
in a series of videos on this channel
called the keto diet exploration.
If you’re interested in learning more
about the ketogenic diet
or specifically more
of my thoughts, my research around it,
and my opinion based on that research
and biological reality,
then I’ve actually made
a playlist here for the channel
and you can go find that playlist
after watching this video, or just open
a new tab and you’ll find it
and subscribe to the playlist.
Make sure you don’t miss the other videos
over there about the ketogenic diet.
So let’s get started.
(upbeat music)
Alright, so for this first video
I wanna highlight some specific things.
We need to lay down a proper foundation
for understanding the human body
and how it utilizes certain fuel sources
to fuel its hormonal
and metabolic processes.
Now any recommendations that I make
throughout the series are gonna be based
on specific reference point of assuming
that you want two things.
The first being hormonal balance
and the second being a healthy metabolism.
Now why would I assume
that you want these things?
It’s funny you ask.
First off, I personally believe that
if someone is to focus
on improving their health
or finding a pattern of eating,
training, and living
that fits optimal health
then the entire pursuit should be focused
on achieving hormonal
balance, and through that,
a healthy energy metabolism.
This singular pursuit
will keep the human body
at optimal health.
No other reference point will.
It will keep you cancer free
with no autoimmune
diseases, no gut problems,
no reproductive problems,
and incredible brain health.
Your body will literally be operating
at optimal capacity, and
this is how I personally
intend to live until I’m 150 years old
and most people have no reference point.
They sling studies around, they claim
that because the quoted a study
that their argument is scientific.
A problem with this
shotgun approach to health
is that there is literally
zero reference point.
There’s no focus, and
myself or any other person
on Earth can cherry pick research studies
all day long to prove any point.
The field of quote scientific research
is as tainted, corrupt, and misleading
as any other human industry and therefore
must always be viewed
with a speculative eye.
Researchers are subject
to economic realities,
biases, and laziness
just like the rest of us.
Is it so surprising to realize
that research could be
misleading or poorly done?
Now the best way to
obtain an objective view
is to reject dogma.
Now if the masses agree on something
it’s typically wrong and I’m
not sure why this is the case
but it appears to be an age old truth,
recorded from ancient times
when the first philosophers
began observing
human behavior and it’s
still just as true today.
My favorite philosopher, Baltasar Gracian,
put it this way in his book
A Pocket Mirror for Heroes.
He said a large crowd, few people.
So here’s the point with respect
to the ketogenic diet in particular,
right now we’re looking
at this large crowd.
With most of the content
that you’re gonna find
all over YouTube, Instagram, Facebook,
blogs, et cetera, this shotgun advice
is quoting random research with little
to no reference to or understanding
of the way the human body actually works
and that’s why in this
series here on my channel
I’m gonna go one layer deeper
and before discussing research studies
around the ketogenic diet
and its effects on humans,
I want to explain to you the viewer
some basic biological truths
about a couple key systems
the human body relies upon
for energy metabolism.
Like I said, these are
truths, they’re facts.
It’s not speculation, it’s not opinion,
and it’s not research, it’s biology 101
and none of the keto gurus out there
discuss biology likely
because they don’t understand
or care to know it, however,
human biochemistry will light our path
on this journey precisely
because it is the truth
and it can help inform our
decisions down the road.
I’m gonna keep things
easy to understand too
so no worries, this is
not gonna be boring.
The idea of keto definitely feels good
and that’s why it’s become
so popular once again.
It seems logical, how
logical is it really?
Is it based in basic human biology?
Let’s take a look.
Now in this video, we’re
gonna cover the following.
First, the Bohr and Haldane effects.
Then the Randle cycle, which is also know
as the glucose fatty acid cycle,
and then how the body uses glucose.
In the upcoming videos, we’re
gonna keep the ball rolling
and we’re gonna move into ketogenesis,
precisely why and how the
body uses ketones for fuel,
and then we’re gonna look at sugar
and antioxidant production.
Then we’ll finish off the series
with an exploration of
the scientific research
with specific topics,
and these are gonna be
keto and thyroid health,
keto and testosterone and cortisol
and the relationship there,
keto and fat loss, keto and cancer,
keto and muscle building,
keto and the brain,
exogenous ketones and
the role that they play
in this system, and then the
keto diet versus fasting.
So that should basically
cover all of our bases here.
Now first things first,
let’s actually define
the term ketogenic diet.
There are a lot of people
slinging the term around
but it seems as though people
are bending the definition
to fit their own purposes, baiting people
to use the same term
for different protocols
which can be misleading and confusing.
Therefore, it’s gonna be helpful
for us to identify and agree upon
a definition of the
actual term ketogenic diet
before we dig into this series.
The definition I’ll be using for keto diet
is a high fat, moderate protein,
and very low carbohydrate diet
which was specifically designed
to treat epilepsy in
children back in the 20’s.
The depletion of glucose stores
in the body requires the body to switch
from a glucose metabolism
to a ketone metabolism,
the secondary energy source
that proponents claim
allows your body to burn fat for fuel.
However, as we’ll see shortly,
this is a drastic oversimplification
of the mechanisms at play.
The ketogenic diet was started
by a physician named
Russell Wilder in 1924
specifically to stop seizures in children.
It’s been an incredibly
effective diet protocol
for treating epilepsy so its
therapeutic effectiveness
for this reason is
definitely not challenged.
Interestingly enough, though, fasting,
not the ketogenic diet, has been used
since ancient Greece to
effectively treat epilepsy.
Wilder’s original intention was actually
to replicate the therapeutic benefits
of fasting in a dietary protocol.
So fasting is quite different
from the ketogenic diet,
however, since it’s a rejuvenative state
and we’re gonna go deeper
into those differences
in another video later on.
Now that we know what
the ketogenic diet is
let’s talk about CO2 and
oxygen production in the body.
This is important so stick with me here.
A healthy metabolism is essential
for overall health and
long life and almost nobody
would argue this fact.
Your metabolism is the sum
of the chemical changes
taking place inside your cells
to provide your body the energy it needs
to perform autonomous,
life-giving processes.
When cellular metabolism declines,
aging accelerates, hormonal
functioning suffers,
and a wide range of disease states
and common annoyances occur,
such as stubborn body fat,
weight gain, muscle wasting, and insomnia,
among other things, and with
this accepted importance
of a healthy systemic metabolism,
it’s strange how very few people
really know how metabolism functions
and therefore are led down all sorts
of rabbit holes with misinformation
from people who also don’t
know anything about it.
Here’s what you need to know.
You want your cells to produce more CO2
to increase oxygen use
and energy production.
Now the Bohr effect, which was named
after Christian Bohr in 1904,
describes the inverse relationship
between hemoglobins,
oxygen binding affinity,
and blood pH and CO2 production.
The Bohr effect allows
for enhanced unloading
of oxygen in metabolically
active peripheral tissue
such as exercising skeletal muscle.
Increased skeletal muscle activity
results in localized increases
in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
which in turn reduces the local blood pH.
Now because of the Bohr effect,
this results in enhanced unloading
of bound oxygen by hemoglobin passing
through the metabolically active tissue
and thus improves oxygen delivery.
Importantly, the Bohr effect
enhances oxygen delivery
proportionately to the metabolic
activity of the tissue.
As more metabolism takes place,
the carbon dioxide
partial pressure increases
thus causing larger reductions in local pH
and in turn allowing for
greater oxygen unloading.
This is especially true in
exercising skeletal muscles
which also may release lactic acid
that further reduces local blood pH
and thus enhances the Bohr effect.
Now here’s a nifty chart
from Christian Bohr
describing this visually
so you can see it.
Now another effect
called the Haldane effect
describes how oxygenation
of blood in the lungs
displaces carbon dioxide from hemoglobin
which increases the
removal of carbon dioxide.
Inversely, oxygenated blood
has a reduced affinity
for carbon dioxide.
Taken together, we see
that these relationships
cause a positive feedback loop,
increasing oxygen use and
improving metabolic function.
The opposite is also true
as a negative feedback loop.
When this system is neglected or abused
then the cells cannot release the oxygen
due to lack of CO2 and energy
metabolism actually decreases.
So why does this matter
to our understanding of the keto diet?
I’ll show you.
Now the Randle cycle, otherwise known
as the glucose fatty acid cycle,
is characterized by a competition
between glucose and fatty acids
for their oxidation and uptake
in muscle and adipose tissue, fat tissue.
The cycle controls fuel selection
and adapts the substrate supply and demand
in normal tissues.
This cycle adds a nutrient
mediated fine tuning
on top of the hormonal
control on fuel metabolism.
This adaptation to nutrient availability
applies to the interaction
between adipose tissue and muscle.
So let’s highlight some
important things right now.
First off, carbohydrate breaks down
to pyruvate through glycolysis.
Now second, pyruvate beaks down
into the necessary CO2,
remember the Bohr effect
I just talked about, and
electrons via the krebs cycle.
Third, that potential energy of electrons
produces cellular energy via
the electron transport chain.
As we mentioned earlier,
when the CO2 production is optimized,
the cells are not just
able to increase oxygen use
which leads to a healthier metabolism,
but this cycle is also a
positive feedback loop.
On a cellular level,
this glucose metabolism
leads directly to metabolic harmony
not just at the cellular level,
but also translated to the hormonal level
via optimal thyroid functioning
and androgen levels.
Now fatty acid metabolism
on the other hand
occurs via beta oxidation, a slow process
that produces much less CO2,
therefore less oxygen
can be used by the cell,
slowing metabolic function
and a negative feedback loop.
This downward spiral is intended
as a survival response, sparing glucose
for as long as possible and in the process
creating an increasingly poor ability
for the body to utilize glucose properly.
This is the Randle effect
and it explains diabetes.
The sugars in the blood
can not be utilized
due to fatty acid metabolism shift
because the cells ability to use glucose
is decreasing due to
the use of fatty acids
resulting in insulin resistance.
Instead of training
cells to use fatty acids
for survival metabolism,
this biochemistry,
what it suggests that humans need
to utilize carbohydrate
for a healthy metabolism
and a hormonal balance.
Now in the next video in the series,
I’m gonna look at the question
regarding where ketones fit into all this.
So far in this keto exploration,
the biochemistry involved is pointing
to the vast superiority
to glucose metabolism
for cellular, metabolic,
and hormonal health.
Fatty acid metabolism is and has been
considered secondary
and a survival mechanism
and the fact that it’s caused by a shift
in catecholamine, i.e. adrenaline,
noradrenaline stimulation in high cortisol
which is the bodies chief stress hormone,
to even achieve the shift from glucose
to a fatty acid metabolism is definitely
not a good sign for those of us
seeking hormonal balance
and a healthy metabolism
which are the goals that I referenced
in the beginning of this video.
Now the next video in this series
is called Ketogenesis:
Why and How The Body
Uses Ketones For Fuel, and in this video
I will obviously answer the question
about how ketones are used by the body
but I also want to address the reality
that many newbies to the keto diet
quote feel amazing when they switch
to it for the first 30 to 90 days.
Now a lot of people swear by the keto diet
based on how good they feel
when they spend their first month or so
in ketosis, I’m gonna
explain why this happens
but also why it’s what
I call this time period
a false positive, a state
of bodily disharmony
that ultimately will run your body
and your health into the ground.
So definitely you don’t
wanna miss that one.
If you’re interested in more information
on this series of videos and
the ketogenic diet exploration,
then subscribe to this channel right now
and find the keto exploration playlist.
I’ll be putting all of
these videos in there.
Also, after all this information,
you may or may not be a bit confused
about exactly what foods that I recommend
people eat, so what I did,
I always wanna make things easy and simple
for people who are
following this information
so I went ahead and put
together a grocery list
called 30 man foods and
it’s completely free,
you can go over to
30manfoods.com right now,
there is a download link,
just enter your email
and I’ll send the links
directly to your email address.
You can take it, print it out,
or you can bring it on your phone
or your tablet to the grocery store.
It makes things easy,
there’s 30 foods there
that are all recommended
for hormonal balance
and hormonal health, so those are gonna be
extremely helpful, go to 30manfoods.com
to find those now.
If you liked this video, if
you thought it was helpful,
give it a thumbs up, that
helps with my YouTube,
the YouTube algorithm, helps
with the ranking, et cetera,
and if you wanna see more videos like this
subscribe to the channel
and I will see you on the next video.