Intermittent Fasting – How it Affects Sleep July 26, 2019 100 By William Morgan It’s not uncommon for someone to try intermittent fasting, and find that they not only haveto deal with hunger, but trouble sleeping as well.I hear about this every now and then and have experienced it for myself.This especially seems to be the case if your new eating window is quite different fromyour previous habits.Actually, it makes sense that fasting initially disturbs sleep, and I’ll explain why, butinterestingly, after a couple of days, intermittent fasting should have you getting better sleepFirst, there are a couple reasons why fasting initially makes it harder to sleep and onecould be that when your body is deriving more energy from fat metabolism, something thathappens during Intermittent fasting, there’s increased orexin – a neuropeptide that stimulateswakefulness.But, what’s probably more of a factor is how intermittent fasting affects your circadianrhythm – your biological clock.We’re all aware that flying across time zones leaves us feeling pretty crappy fora few days because your body’s internal clock is for example expecting it to be morningbut after you get off the plane, the sun is already going down.Once your circadian rhythm adapts to the new time zone by being exposed to light and darkat the proper times, you feel better, but then you have to deal with jet lag all overagain on the return flight.Dr. Charles F. Ehret, a senior scientist at the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois,has developed a diet designed to greatly diminish the disruptive symptoms of jet lag.The diet is a four day process involving light fasting.The first day – you get to eat, the next day you do a fast or eat very lightly of thingslike light soup or salad, then on the third day you can eat again, and on the fourth day,your day of departure – you do another light fast.Then, you continue the fasting and don’t have a proper meal until breakfast time atyour destination.I’ve tried something similar to this a couple times when traveling from Tokyo to America,I don’t start four days in advance- I just eat nothing the day of my flight, nothingon the airplane and have my first bite of food at lunch time after I’ve arrived inAmerica- This has worked surprisingly well, making it easy to fall asleep at a propertime the day I arrive and have almost no jet lag.This works because of how food affects the circadian rhythm.The body doesn’t have just one, but several different biological clocks influencing thecircadian rhythm.There’s a sort of masterclock running in the brain and this is called the suprachiasmaticnucleus and it is very sensitive to blue light.This is why it’s important not to look at screens too much before bed or at least useblue light blocking glasses or a blue light filtering app.Other than the one in the brain, there are other clocks in the body found in organs likethe liver, kidneys, pancreas and heart – these are called peripheral oscillators.Whereas light most affects the clock in your brain, your food and when you eat it, is theprimary controller of these peripheral clocks.So, in the way the sun coming up in the morning and the darkness at night helps your brainkeep track of the time and keep a good circadian rhythm, your first bite of food and your lastbite of food tell your peripheral clocks how to set the circadian rhythm.Considering the main premise of intermittent fasting is modifying the time frame you eatin, it’s understandable that it could mess with your circadian rhythm and your sleep.But, Intermittent Fasting’s influence on the circadian rhythm should actually haveyou sleeping better once you adapt to it.Here’s a study done by Dr. Satchin Panda and Shubhroz Gill at the Salk Institute forBiological studies.They made an easy to use smartphone app that had people log their eating habits.What they wanted to track was in how big of a time frame were people consuming anythingother than water.They found that while most people estimated that their eating window was less than 12hours, in reality it was about 3 hours longer than that.So the time from that first sip of coffee in the morning to the last bite of dessertor sip of wine at night was about 15 hours.Then, they took the people who were eating in a time frame that was longer than 14 hoursand asked them to reduce their eating window to 11 hours.Again, they didn’t have to change what they ate, they only changed when they ate.The results were that they lost weight, felt more energetic and slept much better.As the data here show, they were far more energetic in the morning, they were more energeticoverall, they were less hungry at bedtime and were far more satisfied with their sleep.One reason for this may be that restricting your eating window improves the strength ofcircadian oscillations.Another study co-published by Dr. Satchin Panda says that “feeding/fasting rhythms enhancethe robustness or amplitude of the oscillation of circadian activator and repressor components.”Essentially, you get a more pronounced circadian rhythm in parts of the body when your foodintake is restricted to a certain time frame, like in intermittent fasting.Here in figure 3, we see that the circadian oscillation is much more pronounced in rodentswhose food intake was time restricted.I’m not sure if it’s safe to say that this directly leads to a more pronounced sleep/wakecycle as well, but part of the reason intermittent fasting improves sleep is related to the factthat your body prefers to metabolize food at certain times.If you think about how we used to eat way back before the advent of artificial light,most of our eating would get done during the day, considering we are not nocturnal creatures.So it would make sense for hormones related to food metabolism to work against hormonesthat promote sleep.And, this happens to be the case.This paper from 2013 explains that “an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulationof insulin secretion and vice versa.”So, the sleep promoting hormone, melatonin, can do its job easier if you have low insulin.Luckily, low insulin is one of the effects of intermittent fasting.Going back to the paper by Dr. Satchin Panda, We see that the length of fasting paralleledthe length of sleep.A longer fasting period would lead to lower insulin levels, leading to a better secretionof melatonin and better sleep.So, Intermittent Fasting may disturb your sleep at first, but in just a couple days,it should have you feeling sleepier at night, getting better quality sleep and waking upmore refreshed in the morning. CategoryArticlesTagsand biology Body brain can't sleep circadian rhythm fast fasting fasting benefits fasting diet food healthy hormones hungry improve quality of sleep improve sleep increased energy insomnia insulin intermittent intermittent fasting intermittent fasting benefits intermittent fasting can't sleep ketosis lean gains liver melatonin Metabolism no food nutrition omad one meal a day panda rhonda patrick science Sleep the time restricted feeding tired in the morning you 100 Comments B Bailey says: July 25, 2018 at 8:09 pm I have never been bothered by changing time zones… must be a myth.. kinda like girls being moody from periods. Reply Marcelle Warner says: August 1, 2018 at 6:03 pm I am watching this at 2am. Day 3 OMAD 😂😂 Reply Brian says: August 5, 2018 at 12:26 pm This is such a relief-I thought my inability to sleep was due to my terrible sleep schedule that I was trying to correct. Reply thchillz says: August 6, 2018 at 1:12 am I sleep like a baby during fasts. Reply Lorenzo E. Leonard says: August 12, 2018 at 6:05 pm I translated the video in Italian. Can you accept it? Thank you. Reply Xue Li says: August 12, 2018 at 11:57 pm I am currently 1 week into 16 hour Intermittent Fasting and I feel terrible weak during workout, and my muscles seem to have shrunk quite a bit, but I do feel better in terms of mood and energy level. Reply Optimistically Skeptical says: August 15, 2018 at 10:48 pm Fasting just prior (4-12 hours before) and during long periods of flying and traveling is quite efficient and I found that it makes transitioning easier as well as stress during time of traveling as well. Its just my personal experience. Reply Alexandar Kalapov says: August 16, 2018 at 7:58 pm I felt a sleep during this video Reply Cynical says: August 18, 2018 at 3:42 am Odd i never had issues sleeping hungry. Hell i even use sleep to not feel hungry. Reply Berly says: August 18, 2018 at 11:52 pm thank you for this. I didn't understand why I can't sleep at night. Reply QTee says: August 19, 2018 at 8:24 am I think you sleep better when your stomach is empty… and i totally ignore hunger when im too tired to eat and hate getting out of the bed once im in it Reply Chamanlal Sharma says: August 20, 2018 at 5:34 pm Great informative video Reply Angel Avi says: August 21, 2018 at 7:49 pm I couldn’t sleep last night Reply SoCal Dude says: August 22, 2018 at 5:19 am Must pig out at all airports, have a cocktail on the plane, and eat a sit down meal of any sort once I get there, jet lagged or not. Reply Ploketo Awomi says: August 23, 2018 at 8:41 pm I'm fasting and it's 2:10 am here unable to sleep. Thank you. All the science talk's making me sleepy. Reply Nils Ivo von Aswege says: September 3, 2018 at 10:19 am Lol, I am in the middle of a fasting cycle and they show all this food while stating the facts. Pure torture 😀 Reply Moe Haydar says: September 6, 2018 at 1:52 pm Been on IF for few years.. i sleep better now. I used to have trouble eating until IF. Reply bob freeman says: September 16, 2018 at 12:17 am all of your fasting videos are full of images of food porn. 😐 Reply HOH says: September 18, 2018 at 10:30 pm Poor video, watched twice. Your point is to increase the length of time between eating at night but you then go on to say the people were told to reduce the amount of time they fasted from 15-11 hours??? You also mention that people underestimate the length of time they fasted for by about 3 hours, I suspect you got that reversed as well, too many people like late night snacks and are up early for work! Reply Emilia Lasso says: September 18, 2018 at 11:30 pm I started doing a 16/8 fast everyday and instead of sleeping less, I've been sleeping a whole lot more! Reply I Bias ALL 21 of NCT says: September 20, 2018 at 12:09 pm I've been unconsciously on intermittent fast for the past 2 months. I have my dinner everyday at 6.30 cause my dorm dining starts serving dinner at that time nd dont eat anything after that until the next day's breakfast.two unbelievable improvements that I got out this practice is tht my sleep time has reduced and I can actually control my sleep. at night I get 7 hour sleep on average nd i feel energetic nd not sleepy at all throughout the day. i even stopped dozing off in lectures. It's amazing thinking tht usually i slept around 9-10 hours everyday including naps nd still felt groggy nd sleepy throughout the day. Reply flow repins666 says: September 21, 2018 at 11:42 pm If you eat omad you can eat before nap time and you pass out digesting the food . Multiple problems solved Reply Byrod1 says: September 24, 2018 at 5:57 am Ever since I started OMAD I sleep better, my time to eat is 16:00 to 17:00. Reply Lars Tobias Skjong-Børsting says: September 30, 2018 at 8:49 pm With regards to eating while it's daylight, how does that work when you live, for example, in the north of Norway. In the winter the sun hardly shines, and in the summer it never sets. Would that mess a lot with people's eating habits? Reply ANDYofzz says: October 3, 2018 at 1:38 am That Panda doctor sure know a lot about sleeping Reply Lax says: October 4, 2018 at 3:37 pm I love this video, thankyou for ur knowledge. Reply Mobydick says: October 6, 2018 at 11:27 am Can't sleep, clown will eat me! Can't sleep, clown will eat me! Can't sleep, clown will eat me! Reply MbeastielGaming says: October 12, 2018 at 11:04 pm I started intermittent fasting about 5 days and every night for the past 5 days when I lay down in bed I feel tired But after an hour I find myself still lying there getting more and more awake and more restless. Why? Reply Kunal Bajaj says: October 19, 2018 at 9:15 am Stop showing delicious food please!! XDYour subscribers are either on IF or OMAD.Some days are tough don't make it tougher :p Reply Madalina Pitrop says: October 27, 2018 at 5:54 pm I notice yoy put the morning coffee in the window we eat. How much does a cup of tea in the morning affect my intermittent fasting ? Reply identity Europa says: October 29, 2018 at 9:44 am It happens to me when I fast, not every time. Reply 57pixels says: October 30, 2018 at 10:16 pm 666k :O Reply Ilendir says: November 6, 2018 at 10:02 pm @flying, maybe that works for you but if I don't eat enough before I fly I feel much worse on that day and the day after…congrats that your body can make it work oO Reply Mar Serrano says: November 8, 2018 at 8:51 pm Thanks for subtittle in Spanish Reply Veleka Georgieva says: November 20, 2018 at 11:04 am What is the app created by Dr. Satchin Panda and Shubhroz Gill that you mentioned called and it is still active? Reply Masters of Metal Training and Fitness Equipment says: November 20, 2018 at 2:47 pm INCREDIBLE sleep is one of the biggest benefit I notice from daily fasting (22/2 mostly). After I feast at night I'm lucky to stay awake past 10 pm. Most of my adult life it's typically taken 60-90 minutes to fall asleep. Now falling asleep is effortless and actually intensely pleasurable in those last few minutes as I'm drifting away. Every single day I wake up naturally….no alarm….about 10-20 minutes before the sun comes up. Like a bird basically! Circadian rhythms are real. When you are working with them everything in life is so much easier. That being said……..I played with my band last night and didn't go to sleep until 3:45 am. Got up at 7:30 which is late for me. Functioning perfectly on less than 4 hours sleep. Reply Harshavardhan H says: November 25, 2018 at 4:27 am Do you still eat only one meal a day? Just curious. Reply AJ OEF-A Vet says: November 29, 2018 at 12:33 am Never slept better or hit DREAM stage more in my life till starting OMAD. Dreams are so much more vivid and calming compared to the terrifying ones I would have after coming back from Afghanistan. Matter of fact this way of living has made a lot of issues with pain and pts more manageable. Reply Jeet Sonwani says: November 29, 2018 at 8:57 pm Do you believe that drinking black coffee in the morning breaks the fast? Reply Chris Fontaine says: December 1, 2018 at 6:41 pm My quality of sleep improved significantly when I started interfasting. That it forces me to stop eating at least 2 hours before bed probably helped with that. Reply AMR15x says: December 4, 2018 at 4:07 am "don't look at blue light" immediately after shows blue background Reply Aman Panda says: December 4, 2018 at 6:35 am I slept way better after i started intermittent fasting Reply Tiziano Candotti says: December 12, 2018 at 8:10 pm But when is best to put your eating window? Morning, mid day or evening????? Reply JackCrafty says: December 26, 2018 at 4:51 pm I cannot sleep well in a fasted state. After 3 months of intermittent fasting, my sleep has only improved when I consume my largest meal within two hours of going to bed. Reply Owen Anthony says: December 27, 2018 at 2:55 pm I hear a lot of people talking about one meal a day, I think that's great if that works for you. My window is a 6-7hr window from 12-6pm. I feel being done eating by 6 leaves you full enough before bed but also gives you the benefit of better sleep. We aren't meant to be eating at night so I never ate after 8pm anyway. If you intermittent fast and exercise you'll drop pounds fast. Reply Tatiana Voncille says: December 29, 2018 at 3:42 am I have experienced this. Reply Oussama Bouguerne says: January 1, 2019 at 10:59 am I absolutely agree with what's said in this video, before I started doing intermittent fasting, I had real trouble falling asleep, in fact sometimes it took me more than 2 hours to finally fall asleep. I also had real trouble waking up, not only I had 10 alarms programmed on my phone but I also used to snooze each one of them and top it off the sleep I got was crap and I had to drink large amounts of coffee to feel energized again. I am never stopping intermittent fasting until I day I recommend that everyone gets in the habit of doing it Reply Nicolás Israel says: January 2, 2019 at 9:46 pm You deserve a medal partner, I reckon… Reply Focusontrack says: January 11, 2019 at 6:50 am Intermittent fasting makes me sleep like a princess but only when I go to bed around 10pm and wake up early. Once I'm used to this rhythm I feel great. Reply Dr. Dan Dungus says: January 18, 2019 at 12:53 am Stop monitoring me Reply Iron Guide says: January 18, 2019 at 8:43 pm I am fasting right now and this food images are killing me Reply SPIRITMAN CHARLES says: January 20, 2019 at 8:37 pm I eat at 6am or 8 am or 10am BUT I'LL ALWAYS START MY FAST AT 12 NOON . SO WHEN I GET UP AT 4AM ,I ONLY NEED TO GO 2 HOURS BEFORE I'M AT 16 HOURS @6AM.. IF I EAT @8:AM=18HOURS@10:AM=20HOURS I PUT PINK SALT IN MY WATERTO STOP HUNGER PAINS WHEN THEY HAPPEN I EAT BACON AND EGG WITH CHEESE, THEN ON 2ND MEAL I EAT MY VEGETABLE = BROCCOLIAND THAT'S IT I'LL DO SOME CHICKEN AND RIBEYE BEEF ON PAYDAY ANYWAYS I'M A BREAKFAST KIND OF GUY , DON'T WANT A BUNCH OF FOOD IN MY GUT WHEN IT'S TIME FOR BED (I'D RATHER GO TO BED WITHOUT DINNER , THAN WAKE UP WITH NO BREAKFAST) THAT'S HOW I ROLL it's easy stop eating at noon , and start eating again at 6am,8am or 10am ,,,take your pick on when to start eating again Reply boz says: January 21, 2019 at 12:45 pm omg high insulin fucks everything. nutrient absorption, melatonin, autoimmune disease, sleep, oh my Reply john mark manuel magalona says: January 22, 2019 at 12:22 pm Im a merchant marine, which means i dont get sleep much on a daily basis due to the nature of my work. Do you think it will be safe for me to do intermittent fasting onboard? Reply Dave N Japan says: January 23, 2019 at 2:31 pm You need a few carbs before bed….I found that out after many tries = More morning wood too, then again I workout at night" I fast all day Reply Tom Luptowski says: January 24, 2019 at 4:49 pm I only eat between 5:00pm and 9:00pm, usually no later than 8:00pm. I sleep like a baby Reply aligboyakasha says: January 26, 2019 at 12:12 pm You live in Austin? Reply aligboyakasha says: January 26, 2019 at 12:16 pm So is the old advice of not eating before bed still holding true? Reply Larry Paul says: January 28, 2019 at 4:27 am This is my 2nd day of Intermittent Fasting and I noticed that I experience better sleep and during the fasting period I easily get sleepy. Reply Steve H says: January 29, 2019 at 5:18 am Oh man, before the Internet my life was so simple. Eating, training, not a care in the world. Now I have to do all these health fads and eat my organic coconut oil with Apple cider vinegar etc, do fasting or I'll die from a heart attack within 2 weeks. Not to mention the hundreds of supplements we can't live without lol Reply Alex M says: February 3, 2019 at 4:29 pm If food interferes with sleep, why are we sleepy after lunch and some take a nap? Reply Adrian Paul says: February 7, 2019 at 3:14 am Did you read the circadian code? Reply lyn potter says: February 8, 2019 at 7:51 am I am a night shift worker who has recently started intermittent fasting. The sleep aspect of this regime is def true in practice. I rarely am able to sleep more than a couple of hours between shifts. I have now doubled my sleep quota between shifts. I was wondering how it was that this had happened? Reply Barefoot Prof says: February 9, 2019 at 3:40 am Hmm…I am sleeping better on intermittent fasting but also have been using a light box. So don't know what's helping. I am not my usual gluttonous self too. Reply Barefoot Prof says: February 9, 2019 at 3:43 am Install f.lux to filter out blue light on your computer screen. It's free. Reply Elli Teguh says: February 11, 2019 at 1:48 am I've been doing IF, some times OMAD, for my whole life but i still have trouble sleeping…. Reply Janice Elston says: February 13, 2019 at 12:46 pm I never really had issues sleeping. Intermittent fasting made my sleep even deeper. It’s wonderful. Reply Hapmaplapflap gap says: February 13, 2019 at 12:51 pm this is intersting to hear. I actually had less issues falling asleep from the get-go. Most likely it has to do with how i changed my working hours to accomodate IF, but its still interesting Reply LEONARDO Rpgn says: February 13, 2019 at 10:06 pm Prefiro açúcar, esse cara ai do vídeo ta mentindo , fica sem comer pra ver a insonia que vai acontecer Reply zzcaptain (Mast IV) says: February 14, 2019 at 3:38 pm nic vid, i am going to give it 9 star b/c it is informative, thank you What I've Learned. ****9*** Reply rho lees says: February 26, 2019 at 9:23 am Not helpful. Not true. Just speculating on theory. Been I.F. for 4 weeks and still have insomnia even with taking Melatonin at night Reply Alex M says: February 27, 2019 at 9:01 am So does this mean that if I do IF or OMAD, I should always eat at the same time. Does it mess up my rythms to eat one day at midday and one day later in the evening? Reply Connor Pohl says: February 27, 2019 at 7:28 pm Currently I’m eating from 8am 3 pm . I work an evening shift and go to bed at 2am. Should I change my eating window? Every other week I rotate from 330pm 1am to 6am-330pm shift work. Trying to find an eating window that accommodates both weeks adequately. Any insight is appreciated! Thanks! Reply Milligram says: March 6, 2019 at 9:15 pm Been doing IF for two months and I'm constantly super concentrated and can't bloody sleep. Reply Jas Hobbs says: March 11, 2019 at 4:54 pm My last meal is at 7.30pm or 8pm. My first meal is at 11.30am. – I sleep like I'm dead for minimum 10 hours. Reply Adam Jezewski says: March 12, 2019 at 12:17 am name of that app??? Reply S Touch says: March 13, 2019 at 10:13 am No fap Reply S Touch says: March 13, 2019 at 10:20 am When I was hungry at 3 am then fell asleep and waking up at 8 am I didn't feel hungry at all Reply Esteban Singh says: March 21, 2019 at 3:47 am Not eat in the plane? Out of the question I'm afraid Reply Soo Hyun Jingyi says: April 1, 2019 at 4:53 pm I kinda like the hunger pains tbh Reply Coach Brian says: April 7, 2019 at 7:57 am Using Simpson's clips…how unique. Reply Carel Joubert says: April 24, 2019 at 6:14 am Is it less carbs or is it fasting that make me sleep less, I am 6 months in to this now. I still got to to figure it out. Must admit, though I sleep less, i feel great, never I feel tired/zombie. Why? Reply Grinder !! says: April 25, 2019 at 11:58 am IF can cause a person to have restless sleep whilst waking up during the night due to the pronounced circ rythym and higher levels of cortisol via the adrenals resulting from low insulin and low blood glucose! 💯 Reply Neo Dimi says: April 26, 2019 at 8:40 pm maaan people are doing fasts, keto and other diets please don't show food. Reply sugar jisoo says: May 9, 2019 at 3:43 am What are the effects of intermittent fasting if you’re underweight? Is it dangerous? I really wanna try it but idk if it’s risky or not since I’m underweight Reply Maarten Bos says: May 11, 2019 at 8:09 am Thanks! I was wondering why my sleep was horrible and I had issues asleep on my first day of intermittent fasting, now I know why! Reply Георги Георгиев says: May 12, 2019 at 9:57 pm Im watching this in 1am. Cant sleep and i feel hungerr. Reply Lex Lex says: May 12, 2019 at 11:08 pm Not eat on the plane? But I like eating Reply Phenomenal Douchebag says: May 13, 2019 at 12:54 pm IF is really working for better quality of sleep Reply Timothy Hunt says: May 13, 2019 at 6:03 pm I've been doing a "strict" 16:8 fasting schedule and my sleep has never been better lately. So I can attest to this! Going to bed with a completely full belly helps a lot Reply Ryan Brennan says: May 26, 2019 at 12:29 am I never had the issue with sleeplessness when I started fasting. Then again as a diagnosed insomniac there probably wasn't much to change. But! I did find the improvements to my sleep to show up after I started fasting for about a week and it sticks around. It even lasts on days I don't fast if I'm still fasting regularly (at least 5 times a week). I also really had no issues with jet lag and I don't know why. Reply Joe Rusyn says: June 2, 2019 at 2:33 pm will fasting always help sleep? or only if the window is in the correct place? for example i have my last meal at about 9:30pm and promptly go to sleep afterwards. Reply MythicASMR says: June 3, 2019 at 1:29 am Dude your videos are awesome. Thanks a lot for the research and the entertaining presentation. Reply James Buckley McGrath says: June 20, 2019 at 9:53 am Austin! Reply Sam Sırri says: July 10, 2019 at 3:06 am I can't fall asleep if i'm hungry. Any tips? Reply LOVE LIGHT says: July 12, 2019 at 9:17 am i cant fall asleep hungry it only feels like i am asleep but i am awake it usually happens only when i am hungry though and it has been going on for many years Reply The0rdinary0ne says: July 14, 2019 at 7:12 pm I did a water fast last week and IF since tuesday. My sleep is fucked up from former 8 hours per day to maybe 3 to 6 hours a day max. But I am not tired, I don't have a downer throughout the day and while studying I remember a lot more. Reply GarbageHumanTJM64 says: July 15, 2019 at 8:27 am WIL: We're not nocturnal creatures. Me at work 2 in the morning: Am I a joke to you? Reply Tree Walker says: July 24, 2019 at 2:45 pm I clicked on this video because yesterday I did a 24 hour fast, didn't feel that hungry, fell right asleep. Then I woke up hungry at 2 am and it took me about an hour to fall back to sleep. And then I had vivid dreams about food. Like, in one dream I was at a banquet with yummy food being served all around me and they kept forgetting to give me any. When I woke up this morning and weighed myself, I had lost 3 1/2 pounds overnight! Water weight, I guess, from using up glycogen from ketosis from the fasting? Anyway, plan to continue this fast for another 24 hours. The effects on sleep were not that huge, but I am sure that you are right, when the body gets used to fasting, sleep problems go away. (Time-restricted eating with an 8 to 10 hour eating window hasn't bothered my sleep at all.) Reply eggo says: July 25, 2019 at 4:23 pm I've heard a lot of talk about intermittent fasting and weight loss. Does that mean intermittent fasting would work against someone trying to gain weight? Reply Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *Comment Name * Email * Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.