Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2, Animation.

Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2, Animation.

October 26, 2019 87 By William Morgan


Diabetes refers to a group of conditions characterized
by a high level of blood glucose, commonly
referred to as blood sugar. Too much sugar
in the blood can cause serious, sometimes
life-threatening health problems.
There are two types of chronic diabetic conditions:
type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Pregnant
women may acquire a transient form of the
disease called “gestational diabetes”
which usually resolves after the birth of
baby. Pre-diabetes is when the blood sugar
level is at the borderline: higher than normal,
but lower than in diabetics. Prediabetes may
or may not progress to diabetes.
During food digestion, carbohydrates – or
carb – break down into glucose which is carried
by the bloodstream to various organs of the
body. Insulin is a hormone produced by beta
cells of the pancreas and is necessary for
glucose intake by target cells.
In healthy people, beta cells of the pancreas
produce insulin; insulin binds to its receptor
on target cells and induces glucose intake.
In type 1 diabetes, beta cells of the pancreas
are destroyed by the immune system by mistake.
The reason why this happens is unclear, but
genetic factors are believed to play a major
role. Insulin production is reduced; less
insulin binds to its receptor on target cells;
less glucose is taken into the cells, more
glucose stays in the blood. Type 1 is characterized
by early onset, symptoms commonly start suddenly
and before the age of 20. Type 1 diabetes
is normally managed with insulin injection.
Type 1 diabetics are therefore “insulin
dependent”.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces
enough insulin but something goes wrong either
with receptor binding or insulin signaling
inside the target cells. The cells are not
responsive to insulin and therefore cannot
import glucose; glucose stays in the blood.
In other words, type 2 diabetics are “insulin
resistant”. Here again, genetic factors
predispose susceptibility to the disease,
but it is believed that lifestyle plays a
very important role in type 2. Typically,
obesity, inactive lifestyle, and unhealthy
diet are associated with higher risk of type
2 diabetes. Type 2 is characterized by adult
onset; symptoms usually appear gradually and
start after the age of 30. Type 2 diabetes
accounts for about 80 to 90% of all diabetics.
Management focuses on weight loss and includes
a low-carb diet.